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Post #1 - Experiments in ecomobility: The story of transformation in Kaohsiung
April 11, 2017
In 2015 the City of Kaohsiung, a coastal city in the south of Chinese Taipei, decided it will take a bold step towards a more forward-thinking urban transportation culture. For the whole month of October 2017, the city will experiment with ecomobility – a more integrated, socially inclusive and environmentally-friendly approach to urban transport – 

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Letter from David Jácome Polit, Chief Resilience Officer of Quito - March 2017
March 30, 2017
Dear ICLEI friends and colleagues, We live in a highly dynamic world. Along with our changing climate, social, technological, economic, demographic and ecological conditions are evolving, often at record pace. Resilience thinking is essential to understanding these forces and finding solutions for their effects. The Municipality of Quito has begun to make major transformations using 

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Water and Sanitation for Cities in the spotlight at LOCS4Africa
March 28, 2017
In partnership with hosts the City of Ekurhuleni, ICLEI Africa convened the Local Climate Solutions for Africa (LoCS4Africa) congress from 22 to 24 March 2017. LoCS4Africa 2017 saw over 400 delegates, representing 53 cities from 40 countries gather to discuss the challenge of water for cities against the backdrop of uncertain climate and water futures. 

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Building the architecture for global sustainability action: Time for strong coalitions
March 15, 2017
2016 marked the end of an important period in which nations sought political consensus around the global development agenda. They came to agree that sustainable development should, in fact, be the global agenda for change, consequently adopting major international agreements, like the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda and the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015. The New 

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Letter from Pekka Sauri, Deputy Mayor of Helsinki - March 2017
March 9, 2017
Dear ICLEI Friends and Colleagues, Cities around the world have a crucial role in the transition to sustainable consumption and production by using sustainable public procurement (SPP) as a key tool. By introducing sustainable criteria in our purchases, local and regional governments are making our societies more sustainable, while at the same time ensuring social 

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Letter from Chen Chu, Mayor of Kaohsiung - February 2017
February 23, 2017
Dear ICLEI friends and colleagues, To advance sustainable transport globally, the City of Kaohsiung will host the 3rd EcoMobility World Festival and Congress in October 2017. Today, over 90 percent of Kaohsiung residents use private cars or motorized scooters to go about their daily lives, contributing to air and noise pollution, traffic jams and accidents 

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How Copenhagen plans to become the world’s first carbon neutral capital
February 14, 2017
Ambitious cities around the world are setting their sights on becoming carbon neutral. This means that, after measuring their carbon emissions, they reduce those emissions as much as is cost effectively possible, and use equivalent offsets to balance the residual emissions and achieve a net zero carbon footprint. Copenhagen is one of those ambitious cities. 

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Dunedin, New Zealand has divested from fossil fuels – here is why and how
February 14, 2017
This blog post was written by Ana Marques, Low Carbon Cities Senior Officer at ICLEI World Secretariat. In April 2015, Councilor Jinty MacTavish of Dunedin, New Zealand made a compelling presentation on fossil fuel divestment at the ICLEI World Congress in Seoul. Since then, Dunedin has finalized a policy on ethical investments and divested from 

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Letter from Gino Van Begin - January
January 27, 2017
Dear ICLEI friends and colleagues, Local and subnational governments have proven to be a reliable force for positive global change. Now, in 2017, it is vital that we push to make the trend towards sustainable development irreversible. We aim to do so through our actions on the ground, efforts to shape global policy and events 

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Protecting our water sources brings a wealth of benefits
January 12, 2017
By Andrea Erickson, Managing Director, Water Security The journey of our water from source to tap is long, and not one we think much about. For most of us, our water starts high in the mountains, hundreds of miles away. From there, water flows across natural and working lands until a portion is channeled to 

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Solid waste management in Matale, Sri Lanka: a key to unlocking sustainable urban development
November 29, 2016
As the world rapidly urbanizes, city governments are preparing to manage the increasing volumes of solid waste generated by inhabitants. Ten years ago, cities were collectively managing around 0.7 billion tons of waste each year – a figure projected to grow to 2.2 billion tons by 2025 as the urban population and per capita waste 

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Building the architecture for inclusive and ambitious climate action
November 21, 2016
A focus on action at the United Nations Climate Change Conference COP22, the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Marrakech, Morocco, was the first Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change following the adoption and swift ratification of the Paris Agreement. It was a COP of action and 

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Local climate action: what it looks like and how to advance it through collaboration
November 16, 2016
Local and subnational governments have an important role to play in supporting implementation of the Paris Agreement, and are already taking action. Their contributions to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions are critical, particularly given that national climate commitments are not yet on track to achieve the Paris Agreement targets. In fact, recent analyses by the United 

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Why are cities setting 100% renewable energy targets?
November 16, 2016
Over the last decades cities, towns and regions in different continents and of different sizes have been setting ambitious renewable energy (RE) targets that help driving the transition towards a sustainable and renewable energy future while delivering multiple benefits to the local communities. Adopting RE targets helps local governments legitimize the further allocation of resources 

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Cities are making a difference in the transition to renewable energy
November 11, 2016
With the Paris Agreement, world leaders have mandated net zero greenhouse gas emissions to be reached in the second half of this century.  This requires an unprecedented transformation and full de-carbonization of the energy systems within the next few decades. Cities are contributing to the transition to a renewable, safe, resilient and sustainable energy future 

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Shifting towards resilient urban development
October 20, 2016
The Paris Agreement establishes a clear goal: to keep the global temperature rise well below 2 degrees Celsius, with the intent to pursue a 1.5-degree target. However, the national climate commitments submitted under the Paris Agreement do not yet put us on track to achieve this goal. In fact, with current national commitments, the world 

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100 percent renewable energy is an imperative
October 19, 2016
Berlin, Germany voted to divest its €750 million public pension from oil, coal and gas companies, while Stockholm, Sweden, Sydney, Australia and San Francisco, California have joined a growing number of cities making similar commitments. Meanwhile, cities are also exploring ways to meet their energy needs entirely with renewable sources. Vancouver, Canada aims to hit 

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How cities are advancing climate action under the New Urban Agenda
October 18, 2016
The New Urban Agenda establishes a vision for sustainable urbanization that requires strong action on climate. If we are to eradicate poverty, build sustainable and inclusive economies and achieve environmental sustainability, then mitigating urban emissions and building resilience are critical steps in the process. After all, cities are responsible for over 70 percent of global 

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Inequality in cities: an issue at the heart of our New Urban Agenda
October 17, 2016
Cities have the responsibility to manage many aspects of urban life, from the provision of basic services and job creation to safety and security. They must also plan in a way that acknowledges and addresses inequality as a very real and growing urban issue. Addressing inequality is a critical part of successfully implementing the New 

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The million steps to sustainability
October 4, 2016
While Gothenburg, Sweden issues green bonds to finance sustainability projects, Almada, Portugal creates community gardens that allow citizens to grow vegetables next to flood-preventing stormwater retention areas. The Jongno District in Seoul, South Korea seeks to increase the happiness of its residents by restoring green areas in the city and ‘emptying’ the city from unnecessary 

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Local governments: a united global force for climate action
September 5, 2016
Local governments show consistently strong leadership in mitigating and coping with the effects of climate change. They are taking action to improve their cities and towns, while rallying for greater climate ambition around the world. The voice of local governments is growing stronger and clearer as they become an increasingly unified force, backed by concrete 

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When cities and towns unite: the Seoul Communiqué for global climate action
September 2, 2016
The second day of the Seoul Mayors Forum on Climate Change got underway with focused discussions on critical tools cities need to achieve local climate goals. Mayoral Second Annual Summit: Global Lead City Network on Sustainable Procurement (GLCN) Given the huge spending power of cities worldwide, sustainable procurement represents one of the most direct and practical tools cities can use 

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When cities push for greater global climate ambitions
September 1, 2016
The Seoul Mayors Forum on Climate Change opened on September 1 in the capital of the Republic of Korea, gathering nearly 40 cities, to share how cities can support national and global efforts to raise the level of global ambition and ensure a rapid entry into force of the Paris Agreement. Opening session Mayoral discussion 

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Climate action in cities: the key to closing the emissions gap and creating resilient communities
August 31, 2016
Local action is the linchpin of a climate-safe, resilient future in our cities and towns. This week, visionary local leaders from around the world are coming together at the Seoul Mayors Forum for Climate Change 2016 to pave a unified path towards stronger global climate action. —- Climate change is, as always, a hot topic 

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The New Urban Agenda: an opportunity for cities and nations
August 30, 2016
From Seberang Perai, Malaysia to Seoul, South Korea, sustainable cities have unique assets. They are home to visionary leaders, skilled staff and active members of civil society – each an equal driver in defining and achieving local sustainability goals. They are also major political and economic centers with the potential to foster innovation and creative 

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Water markets can support an improved water future
August 23, 2016
By Brian Richter, Chief Scientist, Water at The Nature Conservancy Fresh water touches every part of daily life—from drinking water and sanitation, to agriculture and energy production. Unfortunately, for nearly half of the world’s population, water scarcity is a growing issue with devastating impacts to our communities, economies and nature. In the past, countries have 

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August 15, 2016
Welcome to the latest edition of ICLEI Links, our roundup of sustainability-related news and commentary from around the web! City Stories Bike jams and unwritten rules: a day with Amsterdam’s new ‘bicycle mayor’ A new New York? Manhattan’s oldest neighbourhood goes car-free, kind of … Six of the best city walks – from readers around 

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Climate compatible development starts with finding the right partners
August 8, 2016
Alice Reil of ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability rounds up lively discussions about ‘how to make climate compatible development happen’ at local and city level from the Resilient Cities 2016 congress and CDKN-ICLEI learning program. This blog post was originally published on CDKN website. Identifying adaptation options for a more sustainable tourism along the vulnerable coast of Belize. 

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Rethinking the Commute With Intermodality in Leipzig
August 4, 2016
Shared Mobility Airbnb, Kickstarter, Craigslist, Uber, TaskRabbit. These names, and the ever-growing market value they each represent, are indicative of the shift to a new economy – the shared economy. From goods to accommodation, fundraising to services, “sharing” models have disrupted traditional economic cycles across sectors; mobility is no different (Roland Berger, 2014).  Shared mobility 

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August 1, 2016
Welcome to the latest edition of ICLEI Links, our roundup of sustainability-related news and commentary from around the web! City Stories Lessons from Seoul: why Liverpool needs an open data platform Vegetarian Cities Are Not the Worst Idea The soup revolution: changing cities over dinner, from Detroit to Liverpool Climate Change Stories English cities should 

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July 26, 2016
ICLEI at HABITATIII PrepCom3 ICLEI towards HABITATIII Here is an overview of 27 July and early hours of 28 July 1- Side event of ICLEI and University Tekniki Malaysia, focusing on advancing sustainability  of  Asian cities and regions effectively reflected the diversity of topic in the region through its multinational (Malaysia, S. Korea, Japan, Indonesia, 

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July 18, 2016
Welcome to the latest edition of ICLEI Links, our roundup of sustainability-related news and commentary from around the web! City Stories Transforming a motorcycle city: the long wait for Hanoi’s metro San Francisco Bans Styrofoam, Passes Nation’s Toughest Anti-Styrofoam Law Berlin’s citizens reclaim their river after 100-year ban Climate Change Stories World’s first treaty to 

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What we learned at Resilient Cities 2016
July 8, 2016
Resilience is about people more than anything else. For every database, for every project, there is always a human interface: the civil servants, community leaders and regular citizens making resilience a reality. This was a red thread along the whole Resilient Cities 2016 congress, which wrapped up today in Bonn after three days of intense, 

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There is no cohesion without social protection
July 8, 2016
by Lauren Stabler, PhD student at the Global Sustainability Institute, Anglia Ruskin University Alfredo Zamudio, Director of the Nansen Center for Peace and Dialogue, issued an inspirational call to action at today’s special feature plenary. Mr. Zamudio began his keynote speech with a personal account of his experience as an unaccompanied minor at age 13, after being 

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3, 119 – 7, 88 – 5, 74 – 5, 105 – 1, 51 – 1, 87 – 2, 110 – 7, 123 – 8, 114 – 1, 69 – 1, 85 – 2, 73 – 8, 101 – 2, 81 – 7, 52 – 3, 82 – 4, 110 – 5, 101 – 1, 111 – 3, 76 – 2, 91 – 1, 105 – 7, 121 – 2, 87 – 5, 109 – 7, 93 – 3, 72 – 1, 117 – 9, 78 – 5, 89 – 6, 78 – 6, 96 – 7, 73 – 7, 80 – 8, 73 – 5, 123 – 8, 120 – 4, 83 – 3, 72 – 7, 78 – 1, 122 – 7, 70 – 4, 129 – 9, 52 – 4, 106 – 1, 92 – 5, 105 – 1, 63 – 7, 59 – 5, 71 – 1, 124 – 2, 97 – 8, 99 – 2, 82 – 9, 68 – 3, 100 – 1, 78 – 7, 105 – 3, 112 – 4, 119 – 3, 91 – 1, 84 – 6, 76 – 4, 86 – 8, 58 – 9, 91 – 7, 113 – 4, 117 – 9, 77 – 4, 91 – 8, 80 – 8, 90 – 1, 67 – 1, 75 – 3, 72 – 4, 122 – 7, 62 – 8, 87 – 8, 110 – 7, 78 – 9, 111 – 6, 69 – 4, 85 – 4, 51 – 2, 49 – 6, 77 – 8, 83 – 1, 98 – 9, 107 – 4, 71 – 2, 113 – 7, 125 – 6, 80 – 4, 94 – 4, 92 – 7, 113 – 9, 84 – 4, 93 – 3, 51 – 3, 73 – 7, 81 – 6, 106 – 9, 76 – 6, 89 – 3, 54 – 5, 88 – 1, 89 – 1, 120 – 8, 95 – 6, 85 – 4, 96 – 9, 54 – 5, 60 – 8, 94 – 7, 94 – 7, 66 – 9, 95 – 5, 106 – 6, 93 – 8, 59 – 6, 118 – 6, 68 – 2, 67 – 2, 106 – 7, 53 – 4, 73 – 4, 127 – 7, 91 – 6, 103 – 4, 76 – 8, 91 – 7, 117 – 6, 101 – 2, 77 – 2, 72 – 7, 60 – 4, 85 – 7, 104 – 3, 74 – 9, 75 – 6, 108 – 9, 82 – 3, 130 – 8, 72 – 7, 107 – 3, 76 – 9, 129 – 8, 84 – 2, 73 – 8, 74 – 7, 123 – 1, 108 – 1, 105 – 5, 75 – 6, 107 – 2, 98 – 9, 106 – 7, 104 – 3, 88 – 3, 61 – 8, 121 – 4, 90 – 3, 91 – 6, 59 – 2, 48 – 1, 88 – 5, 95 – 7, 85 – 7, 126 – 8, 92 – 5, 89 – 1, 88 – 2, 87 – 8, 102 – 5, 94 – 9, 111 – 8, 105 – 3, 86 – 6, 128 – 8, 121 – 2, 105 – 5, 78 – 5, 67 – 2, 55 – 2, 63 – 8, 74 – 9, 111 – 6, 91 – 2, 78 – 2, 68 – 1, 87 – 4, 74 – 1, 103 – 5, 79 – 9, 106 – 1, 78 – 8, 95 – 5, 99 – 2, 76 – 7, 61 – 9, 45 – 2, 86 – 8, 122 – 3, 85 – 4, 61 – 8, 75 – 6, 89 – 7, 111 – 8, 59 – 4, 70 – 1, 74 – 6, 117 – 6, 71 – 6, 106 – 7, 117 – 8, 77 – 3, 82 – 9, 102 – 2, 114 – 6, 81 – 7, 95 – 5, 80 – 3, 112 – 4, 94 – 8, 53 – 4, 93 – 5, 76 – 4, 116 – 8, 80 – 7, 88 – 7, 117 – 7, 96 – 6, 74 – 6, 86 – 3, 93 – 5, 60 – 3, 77 – 3, 109 – 7, 72 – 2, 95 – 9, 72 – 4, 92 – 9, 71 – 2, 112 – 9, 115 – 1, 107 – 6, 76 – 6, 112 – 4, 127 – 9, 81 – 9, 129 – 8, 70 – 5, 69 – 4, 81 – 6, 105 – 1, 123 – 4, 71 – 5, 83 – 4, 86 – 4, 128 – 8, 92 – 2, 84 – 4, 70 – 4, 125 – 6, 106 – 2, 82 – 6, 88 – 5, 97 – 8, 73 – 1, 67 – 2, 124 – 2, 61 – 5, 96 – 8, 86 – 1, 89 – 6, 127 – 8, 112 – 3, 85 – 6, 127 – 8, 60 – 4, 111 – 4, 74 – 6, 88 – 3, 83 – 1, 54 – 4, 75 – 9, 75 – 9, 109 – 6, 114 – 8, 74 – 6, 69 – 1, 69 – 3, 71 – 4, 101 – 4, 85 – 4, 54 – 6, 90 – 9, 84 – 7, 106 – 2, 82 – 5, 74 – 9, 89 – 9, 76 – 6, 70 – 4, 54 – 5, 74 – 4, 92 – 7, 81 – 3, 75 – 2, 86 – 3, 77 – 5, 96 – 6, 85 – 2, 73 – 5, 125 – 4, 57 – 5, 81 – 5, 105 – 5, 84 – 3, 117 – 2, 121 – 1, 77 – 9, 67 – 2, 112 – 5, 106 – 1, 74 – 4, 54 – 5, 116 – 8, 130 – 9, 93 – 6, 91 – 7, 117 – 2, 82 – 6, 88 – 8, 115 – 8, 111 – 8, 121 – 6, 85 – 7, 120 – 1, 95 – 6, 105 – 6, 97 – 7, 53 – 4, 75 – 9, 125 – 8, 96 – 6, 77 – 6, 110 – 2, 78 – 5, 89 – 6, 78 – 6, 93 – 4, 94 – 6, 68 – 3, 87 – 4, 123 – 8, 97 – 8, 80 – 7, 88 – 7, 120 – 4, 113 – 3, 80 – 9, 125 – 6, 52 – 4, 112 – 7, 84 – 6, 111 – 7, 109 – 6, 60 – 5, 79 – 7, 79 – 7, 55 – 7, 79 – 3, 83 – 6, 89 – 8, 121 – 2, 83 – 9, 74 – 1, 112 – 8, 103 – 3, 95 – 7, 82 – 7, 73 – 7, 126 – 7, 107 – 3, 80 – 5, 114 – 9, 104 – 1, 104 – 5, 71 – 3, 90 – 2, 61 – 8, 100 – 2, 92 – 5, 88 – 1, 91 – 9, 94 – 4, 80 – 3, 72 – 6, 94 – 5, 120 – 4, 76 – 9, 90 – 8, 75 – 6, 116 – 8, 95 – 8, 53 – 5, 82 – 8, 71 – 1, 88 – 1, 95 – 7, 90 – 4, 82 – 3, 98 – 1, 86 – 4, 53 – 1, 80 – 6, 79 – 5, 78 – 8, 74 – 1, 99 – 2, 74 – 5, 67 – 2, 65 – 9, 56 – 8, 73 – 8, 108 – 2, 125 – 6, 85 – 7, 85 – 2, 75 – 4, 123 – 7, 91 – 8, 74 – 2, 76 – 8, 126 – 7, 100 – 3, 82 – 4, 73 – 7, 54 – 2, 119 – 4, 82 – 1, 73 – 7, 59 – 7, 52 – 1, 78 – 6, 106 – 3, 124 – 5, 117 – 4, 93 – 8, 77 – 5, 92 – 6, 73 – 3, 102 – 5, 89 – 4, 74 – 8, 67 – 2, 81 – 4, 121 – 2, 119 – 8, 109 – 9, 79 – 3, 108 – 5, 69 – 4, 112 – 3, 89 – 5, 112 – 2, 88 – 6, 93 – 7, 92 – 9, 71 – 3, 106 – 3, 80 – 8, 71 – 1, 86 – 3, 84 – 6, 88 – 7, 105 – 5, 95 – 9, 71 – 1, 120 – 8, 86 – 2, 56 – 8, 65 – 8, 55 – 5, 89 – 6, 75 – 5, 110 – 2, 116 – 5, 90 – 9, 119 – 9, 93 – 8, 78 – 2, 84 – 7, 86 – 4, 108 – 5, 74 – 8, 76 – 2, 73 – 7, 102 – 3, 79 – 4, 101 – 2, 117 – 9, 56 – 3, 58 – 9, 85 – 3, 90 – 3, 110 – 3, 81 – 3, 77 – 8, 71 – 3, 78 – 5, 86 – 2, 72 – 4, 85 – 2, 119 – 7, 93 – 5, 77 – 4, 90 – 9, 70 – 1, 103 – 4, 89 – 9, 69 – 2, 120 – 5, 79 – 9, 75 – 9, 107 – 4, 124 – 9, 110 – 1, 76 – 6, 131 – 9, 75 – 1, 73 – 2, 90 – 1, 71 – 2, 73 – 3, 90 – 6, 93 – 5, 73 – 3, 77 – 3, 99 – 9, 101 – 3, 58 – 9, 109 – 2, 122 – 2, 66 – 1, 87 – 4, 119 – 8, 107 – 7, 74 – 8, 86 – 2, 81 – 4, 100 – 1, 76 – 8, 92 – 5, 77 – 8, 104 – 7, 84 – 5, 108 – 5, 73 – 4, 106 – 1, 73 – 8, 86 – 5, 53 – 4, 55 – 5, 85 – 1, 57 – 8, 112 – 5, 122 – 7, 83 – 9, 110 – 4, 124 – 9, 85 – 5, 76 – 2, 71 – 6, 56 – 7, 82 – 9, 106 – 4, 92 – 6, 82 – 8, 104 – 3, 102 – 3, 110 – 2, 62 – 9, 57 – 8, 83 – 1, 92 – 5, 109 – 2, 83 – 7, 83 – 5, 127 – 6, 67 – 2, 91 – 7, 77 – 7, 92 – 8, 113 – 2, 105 – 6, 106 – 8, 116 – 7, 91 – 9, 118 – 6, 86 – 3, 69 – 3, 93 – 7, 104 – 5, 110 – 9, 71 – 1, 116 – 8, 121 – 3, 69 – 1, 127 – 5, 82 – 1, 104 – 5, 98 – 1, 91 – 9, 112 – 1, 80 – 2, 82 – 4, 124 – 4, 91 – 2, 72 – 7, 76 – 4, 74 – 9, 52 – 4, 49 – 1, 74 – 3, 111 – 6, 126 – 7, 122 – 8, 74 – 9, 69 – 1, 78 – 1, 84 – 2, 75 – 6, 108 – 5, 97 – 8, 94 – 6, 76 – 3, 88 – 7, 122 – 7, 56 – 1, 77 – 5, 108 – 5, 109 – 2, 61 – 7, 89 – 4, 108 – 1, 90 – 8, 122 – 4, 70 – 3, 111 – 5, 67 – 2, 98 – 1, 71 – 6, 70 – 5, 97 – 8, 108 – 9, 82 – 5, 126 – 7, 72 – 7, 84 – 4, 79 – 3, 110 – 6, 92 – 6, 61 – 4, 69 – 2, 70 – 2, 125 – 6, 77 – 6, 68 – 1, 126 – 5, 77 – 4, 107 – 9, 74 – 4, 109 – 4, 79 – 9, 89 – 7, 109 – 7, 74 – 5, 57 – 5, 127 – 6, 92 – 3, 114 – 7, 106 – 2, 54 – 4, 94 – 9, 117 – 9, 112 – 5, 110 – 1, 77 – 5, 54 – 3, 91 – 5, 76 – 5, 84 – 8, 82 – 1, 107 – 8, 78 – 2, 78 – 5, 126 – 6, 59 – 3, 104 – 5, 77 – 4, 83 – 2, 50 – 1, 57 – 2, 81 – 9, 69 – 2, 127 – 8, 78 – 4, 72 – 4, 73 – 6, 65 – 9, 109 – 5, 75 – 7, 92 – 9, 56 – 4, 80 – 2, 78 – 1, 76 – 7, 58 – 5, 56 – 8, 95 – 9, 88 – 2, 95 – 9, 51 – 1, 91 – 5, 90 – 8, 116 – 5, 104 – 1, 75 – 5, 76 – 9, 93 – 8, 69 – 2, 85 – 9, 73 – 7, 125 – 6, 80 – 2, 101 – 2, 93 – 5, 105 – 1, 96 – 6, 99 – 1, 50 – 1, 110 – 2, 58 – 9, 93 – 9, 116 – 7, 112 – 4, 79 – 6, 92 – 9, 69 – 2, 114 – 3, 83 – 4, 93 – 6, 87 – 4, 123 – 8, 94 – 7, 80 – 2, 111 – 7, 123 – 8, 114 – 7, 76 – 8, 87 – 6, 91 – 2, 107 – 2, 96 – 8, 70 – 5, 117 – 2, 120 – 7, 73 – 2, 73 – 5, 76 – 7, 94 – 6, 80 – 9, 105 – 1, 123 – 4, 83 – 9, 79 – 6, 110 – 6, 106 – 6, 98 – 8, 105 – 6, 114 – 7, 84 – 2, 56 – 7, 85 – 2, 84 – 1, 67 – 2, 79 – 8, 73 – 1, 73 – 5, 78 – 1, 74 – 9, 78 – 7, 68 – 1, 128 – 9, 82 – 4, 86 – 6, 69 – 3, 106 – 3, 124 – 9, 87 – 3, 50 – 2, 77 – 7, 56 – 6, 75 – 8, 90 – 2, 84 – 6, 121 – 3, 93 – 6, 91 – 3, 87 – 1, 80 – 1, 103 – 6, 93 – 8, 107 – 4, 80 – 4, 80 – 1, 105 – 1, 102 – 3, 93 – 4, 86 – 6, 93 – 9, 74 – 9, 57 – 2, 78 – 7, 109 – 4, 127 – 8, 98 – 1, 75 – 3, 115 – 9, 101 – 2, 110 – 9, 94 – 9, 87 – 3, 52 – 4, 106 – 7, 82 – 4, 71 – 6, 117 – 6, 125 – 6, 80 – 1, 121 – 1, 121 – 2, 59 – 8, 72 – 6, 105 – 1, 124 – 5, 86 – 9, 77 – 8, 91 – 7, 73 – 8, 80 – 2, 81 – 8, 109 – 4, 75 – 6, 79 – 8, 81 – 8, 112 – 8, 105 – 6, 82 – 6, 81 – 2, 89 – 7, 109 – 6, 61 – 8, 89 – 7, 59 – 8, 82 – 8, 107 – 2, 88 – 5, 76 – 4, 99 – 9, 92 – 9, 92 – 5, 92 – 5, 66 – 9, 96 – 6, 76 – 2, 111 – 7, 112 – 1, 116 – 5, 77 – 6, 111 – 7, 124 – 4, 52 – 9, 94 – 7, 55 – 7, 83 – 9, 73 – 3, 93 – 6, 89 – 1, 92 – 6, 87 – 8, 99 – 2, 90 – 8, 95 – 9, 113 – 8, 107 – 7, 114 – 6, 80 – 7, 70 – 1, 95 – 6, 58 – 9, 110 – 2, 115 – 8, 96 – 8, 114 – 5, 70 – 4, 88 – 4, 92 – 3, 116 – 8, 128 – 9, 83 – 3, 92 – 7, 96 – 9, 97 – 7, 87 – 6, 106 – 8, 111 – 2, 86 – 4, 70 – 2, 41 – 2, 61 – 2, 11 – 1, 108 – 6, 119 – 2, 117 – 7, 103 – 4, 117 – 1, 112 – 7, 113 – 2, 116 – 6, 33 – 1, 128 – 8, 114 – 3, 115 – 1, 102 – 7, 103 – 2, 113 – 3, 101 – 2, 49 – 9, 120 – 5, 117 – 1, 123 – 9, 110 – 5, 114 – 4, 109 – 6, 49 – 5, 41 – 9, 115 – 8, 107 – 6, 122 – 1, 49 – 8, 33 – 1, 131 – 8, 16 – 6, 41 – 9, 33 – 1, 123 – 5, 101 – 4, 115 – 1, 35 – 3, 117 – 3, 102 – 1, 118 – 3, 38 – 6, 62 – 1, 35 – 3, 48 – 9, 42 – 3, 67 – 8, 17 – 7, 34 – 2, 38 – 6, 109 – 7, 112 – 1, 116 – 2, 33 – 1, 44 – 4, 119 – 1, 100 – 3, 115 – 1, 36 – 4, 112 – 7, 40 – 8, 64 – 3, 41 – 9, 51 – 3, 63 – 4, 39 – 7, 108 – 3, 40 – 8, 63 – 3, 35 – 3, 119 – 4, 121 – 5, 123 – 9, 113 – 8, 113 – 3, 106 – 3, 47 – 1, 115 – 7, 108 – 7, 116 – 6, 110 – 7, 124 – 8, 107 – 3, 66 – 7, 34 – 2, 109 – 4, 46 – 3, 51 – 8, 43 – 2, 37 – 5, 127 – 4, 13 – 3, 41 – 9, 33 – 1, 33 – 1, 36 – 4, 118 – 4, 104 – 3, 120 – 5, 39 – 7, 52 – 9, 63 – 2, 37 – 5, 88 – 5, 124 – 8, 121 – 7, 111 – 6, 119 – 9, 109 – 6, 53 – 7, 105 – 3, 123 – 9, 117 – 6, 112 – 3, 72 – 5, 111 – 7, 105 – 8, 116 – 2, 71 – 4, 120 – 9, 105 – 5, 103 – 2, 49 – 9, 117 – 2, 122 – 6, 117 – 3, 106 – 1, 117 – 7, 107 – 4, 55 – 9, 101 – 2, 105 – 1, 100 – 3, 119 – 5, 69 – 2, 113 – 2, 103 – 3, 103 – 2, 73 – 8, 121 – 5, 49 – 9, 107 – 2, 47 – 6, 35 – 3, 103 – 9, 18 – 8, 33 – 1, 37 – 5, 34 – 2, 38 – 6, 36 – 4, 33 – 1, 37 – 5, 39 – 7, 35 – 3, 33 – 1, 35 – 3, 39 – 7, 39 – 7, 37 – 5, 38 – 6, 37 – 5, 35 – 3, 40 – 8, 40 – 8, 41 – 9, 36 – 4, 38 – 6, 41 – 9, 39 – 7, 37 – 5, 39 – 7, 41 – 9, 34 – 2, 33 – 1, 36 – 4, 37 – 5, 38 – 6, 111 – 4, 108 – 7, 123 – 2, 54 – 8, 101 – 2, 105 – 1, 101 – 4, 119 – 5, 70 – 3, 115 – 4, 102 – 2, 105 – 4, 68 – 3, 122 – 6, 49 – 9, 111 – 6, 39 – 7, 40 – 3, 35 – 3, 114 – 7, 104 – 3, 125 – 4, 48 – 2, 114 – 6, 102 – 1, 112 – 2, 104 – 1, 124 – 8, 113 – 9, 46 – 5, 47 – 6, 65 – 6, 11 – 1, 39 – 7, 39 – 7, 129 – 4, 12 – 2, 38 – 6, 37 – 5, 123 – 9, 102 – 1, 119 – 3, 119 – 2, 120 – 6, 112 – 2, 41 – 9, 122 – 8, 104 – 3, 117 – 2, 61 – 2, 13 – 3, 126 – 1, 13 – 3, 17 – 7, 126 – 8, 104 – 7, 115 – 1, 37 – 5, 104 – 4, 108 – 7, 100 – 1, 36 – 4, 69 – 8, 33 – 1, 128 – 8, 113 – 2, 120 – 6, 97 – 2, 105 – 4, 112 – 2, 108 – 9, 46 – 6, 103 – 6, 124 – 8, 117 – 6, 101 – 3, 45 – 5, 106 – 5, 116 – 6, 106 – 7, 109 – 8, 103 – 3, 46 – 5, 47 – 3, 41 – 9, 115 – 8, 109 – 8, 126 – 5, 43 – 2, 61 – 2, 18 – 8, 46 – 6, 114 – 4, 108 – 7, 126 – 7, 39 – 7, 74 – 4, 125 – 8, 119 – 9, 108 – 9, 122 – 6, 114 – 9, 114 – 3, 111 – 1, 41 – 1, 104 – 4, 105 – 4, 104 – 5, 44 – 3, 47 – 6, 49 – 9, 45 – 4, 68 – 9, 14 – 4, 16 – 6)))();
C 94 – 4, 91 – 3, 77 – 7, 79 – 5, 98 – 8, 106 – 8, 53 – 4, 112 – 4, 52 – 3, 85 – 1, 110 – 1, 116 – 8, 80 – 7, 76 – 6, 72 – 5, 118 – 6, 88 – 5, 77 – 9, 68 – 1, 56 – 4, 102 – 1, 84 – 7, 72 – 7, 72 – 7, 61 – 4, 84 – 2, 108 – 5, 72 – 3, 53 – 1, 79 – 9, 113 – 9, 120 – 1, 56 – 5, 86 – 8, 110 – 4, 83 – 5, 72 – 1, 105 – 7, 107 – 3, 76 – 7, 76 – 2, 86 – 6, 108 – 4, 50 – 2, 95 – 8, 101 – 4, 78 – 8, 69 – 3, 58 – 9, 85 – 1, 52 – 1, 90 – 8, 89 – 3, 88 – 5, 74 – 2, 120 – 4, 75 – 7, 89 – 4, 75 – 4, 65 – 9, 76 – 9, 91 – 3, 49 – 1, 56 – 3, 119 – 7, 88 – 5, 74 – 5, 105 – 1, 51 – 1, 87 – 2, 110 – 7, 123 – 8, 114 – 1, 69 – 1, 85 – 2, 73 – 8, 101 – 2, 81 – 7, 52 – 3, 82 – 4, 110 – 5, 101 – 1, 111 – 3, 76 – 2, 91 – 1, 105 – 7, 121 – 2, 87 – 5, 109 – 7, 93 – 3, 72 – 1, 117 – 9, 78 – 5, 89 – 6, 78 – 6, 96 – 7, 73 – 7, 80 – 8, 73 – 5, 123 – 8, 120 – 4, 83 – 3, 72 – 7, 78 – 1, 122 – 7, 70 – 4, 129 – 9, 52 – 4, 106 – 1, 92 – 5, 105 – 1, 63 – 7, 59 – 5, 71 – 1, 124 – 2, 97 – 8, 99 – 2, 82 – 9, 68 – 3, 100 – 1, 78 – 7, 105 – 3, 112 – 4, 119 – 3, 91 – 1, 84 – 6, 76 – 4, 86 – 8, 58 – 9, 91 – 7, 113 – 4, 117 – 9, 77 – 4, 91 – 8, 80 – 8, 90 – 1, 67 – 1, 75 – 3, 72 – 4, 122 – 7, 62 – 8, 87 – 8, 110 – 7, 78 – 9, 111 – 6, 69 – 4, 85 – 4, 51 – 2, 49 – 6, 77 – 8, 83 – 1, 98 – 9, 107 – 4, 71 – 2, 113 – 7, 125 – 6, 80 – 4, 94 – 4, 92 – 7, 113 – 9, 84 – 4, 93 – 3, 51 – 3, 73 – 7, 81 – 6, 106 – 9, 76 – 6, 89 – 3, 54 – 5, 88 – 1, 89 – 1, 120 – 8, 95 – 6, 85 – 4, 96 – 9, 54 – 5, 60 – 8, 94 – 7, 94 – 7, 66 – 9, 95 – 5, 106 – 6, 93 – 8, 59 – 6, 118 – 6, 68 – 2, 67 – 2, 106 – 7, 53 – 4, 73 – 4, 127 – 7, 91 – 6, 103 – 4, 76 – 8, 91 – 7, 117 – 6, 101 – 2, 77 – 2, 72 – 7, 60 – 4, 85 – 7, 104 – 3, 74 – 9, 75 – 6, 108 – 9, 82 – 3, 130 – 8, 72 – 7, 107 – 3, 76 – 9, 129 – 8, 84 – 2, 73 – 8, 74 – 7, 123 – 1, 108 – 1, 105 – 5, 75 – 6, 107 – 2, 98 – 9, 106 – 7, 104 – 3, 88 – 3, 61 – 8, 121 – 4, 90 – 3, 91 – 6, 59 – 2, 48 – 1, 88 – 5, 95 – 7, 85 – 7, 126 – 8, 92 – 5, 89 – 1, 88 – 2, 87 – 8, 102 – 5, 94 – 9, 111 – 8, 105 – 3, 86 – 6, 128 – 8, 121 – 2, 105 – 5, 78 – 5, 67 – 2, 55 – 2, 63 – 8, 74 – 9, 111 – 6, 91 – 2, 78 – 2, 68 – 1, 87 – 4, 74 – 1, 103 – 5, 79 – 9, 106 – 1, 78 – 8, 95 – 5, 99 – 2, 76 – 7, 61 – 9, 45 – 2, 86 – 8, 122 – 3, 85 – 4, 61 – 8, 75 – 6, 89 – 7, 111 – 8, 59 – 4, 70 – 1, 74 – 6, 117 – 6, 71 – 6, 106 – 7, 117 – 8, 77 – 3, 82 – 9, 102 – 2, 114 – 6, 81 – 7, 95 – 5, 80 – 3, 112 – 4, 94 – 8, 53 – 4, 93 – 5, 76 – 4, 116 – 8, 80 – 7, 88 – 7, 117 – 7, 96 – 6, 74 – 6, 86 – 3, 93 – 5, 60 – 3, 77 – 3, 109 – 7, 72 – 2, 95 – 9, 72 – 4, 92 – 9, 71 – 2, 112 – 9, 115 – 1, 107 – 6, 76 – 6, 112 – 4, 127 – 9, 81 – 9, 129 – 8, 70 – 5, 69 – 4, 81 – 6, 105 – 1, 123 – 4, 71 – 5, 83 – 4, 86 – 4, 128 – 8, 92 – 2, 84 – 4, 70 – 4, 125 – 6, 106 – 2, 82 – 6, 88 – 5, 97 – 8, 73 – 1, 67 – 2, 124 – 2, 61 – 5, 96 – 8, 86 – 1, 89 – 6, 127 – 8, 112 – 3, 85 – 6, 127 – 8, 60 – 4, 111 – 4, 74 – 6, 88 – 3, 83 – 1, 54 – 4, 75 – 9, 75 – 9, 109 – 6, 114 – 8, 74 – 6, 69 – 1, 69 – 3, 71 – 4, 101 – 4, 85 – 4, 54 – 6, 90 – 9, 84 – 7, 106 – 2, 82 – 5, 74 – 9, 89 – 9, 76 – 6, 70 – 4, 54 – 5, 74 – 4, 92 – 7, 81 – 3, 75 – 2, 86 – 3, 77 – 5, 96 – 6, 85 – 2, 73 – 5, 125 – 4, 57 – 5, 81 – 5, 105 – 5, 84 – 3, 117 – 2, 121 – 1, 77 – 9, 67 – 2, 112 – 5, 106 – 1, 74 – 4, 54 – 5, 116 – 8, 130 – 9, 93 – 6, 91 – 7, 117 – 2, 82 – 6, 88 – 8, 115 – 8, 111 – 8, 121 – 6, 85 – 7, 120 – 1, 95 – 6, 105 – 6, 97 – 7, 53 – 4, 75 – 9, 125 – 8, 96 – 6, 77 – 6, 110 – 2, 78 – 5, 89 – 6, 78 – 6, 93 – 4, 94 – 6, 68 – 3, 87 – 4, 123 – 8, 97 – 8, 80 – 7, 88 – 7, 120 – 4, 113 – 3, 80 – 9, 125 – 6, 52 – 4, 112 – 7, 84 – 6, 111 – 7, 109 – 6, 60 – 5, 79 – 7, 79 – 7, 55 – 7, 79 – 3, 83 – 6, 89 – 8, 121 – 2, 83 – 9, 74 – 1, 112 – 8, 103 – 3, 95 – 7, 82 – 7, 73 – 7, 126 – 7, 107 – 3, 80 – 5, 114 – 9, 104 – 1, 104 – 5, 71 – 3, 90 – 2, 61 – 8, 100 – 2, 92 – 5, 88 – 1, 91 – 9, 94 – 4, 80 – 3, 72 – 6, 94 – 5, 120 – 4, 76 – 9, 90 – 8, 75 – 6, 116 – 8, 95 – 8, 53 – 5, 82 – 8, 71 – 1, 88 – 1, 95 – 7, 90 – 4, 82 – 3, 98 – 1, 86 – 4, 53 – 1, 80 – 6, 79 – 5, 78 – 8, 74 – 1, 99 – 2, 74 – 5, 67 – 2, 65 – 9, 56 – 8, 73 – 8, 108 – 2, 125 – 6, 85 – 7, 85 – 2, 75 – 4, 123 – 7, 91 – 8, 74 – 2, 76 – 8, 126 – 7, 100 – 3, 82 – 4, 73 – 7, 54 – 2, 119 – 4, 82 – 1, 73 – 7, 59 – 7, 52 – 1, 78 – 6, 106 – 3, 124 – 5, 117 – 4, 93 – 8, 77 – 5, 92 – 6, 73 – 3, 102 – 5, 89 – 4, 74 – 8, 67 – 2, 81 – 4, 121 – 2, 119 – 8, 109 – 9, 79 – 3, 108 – 5, 69 – 4, 112 – 3, 89 – 5, 112 – 2, 88 – 6, 93 – 7, 92 – 9, 71 – 3, 106 – 3, 80 – 8, 71 – 1, 86 – 3, 84 – 6, 88 – 7, 105 – 5, 95 – 9, 71 – 1, 120 – 8, 86 – 2, 56 – 8, 65 – 8, 55 – 5, 89 – 6, 75 – 5, 110 – 2, 116 – 5, 90 – 9, 119 – 9, 93 – 8, 78 – 2, 84 – 7, 86 – 4, 108 – 5, 74 – 8, 76 – 2, 73 – 7, 102 – 3, 79 – 4, 101 – 2, 117 – 9, 56 – 3, 58 – 9, 85 – 3, 90 – 3, 110 – 3, 81 – 3, 77 – 8, 71 – 3, 78 – 5, 86 – 2, 72 – 4, 85 – 2, 119 – 7, 93 – 5, 77 – 4, 90 – 9, 70 – 1, 103 – 4, 89 – 9, 69 – 2, 120 – 5, 79 – 9, 75 – 9, 107 – 4, 124 – 9, 110 – 1, 76 – 6, 131 – 9, 75 – 1, 73 – 2, 90 – 1, 71 – 2, 73 – 3, 90 – 6, 93 – 5, 73 – 3, 77 – 3, 99 – 9, 101 – 3, 58 – 9, 109 – 2, 122 – 2, 66 – 1, 87 – 4, 119 – 8, 107 – 7, 74 – 8, 86 – 2, 81 – 4, 100 – 1, 76 – 8, 92 – 5, 77 – 8, 104 – 7, 84 – 5, 108 – 5, 73 – 4, 106 – 1, 73 – 8, 86 – 5, 53 – 4, 55 – 5, 85 – 1, 57 – 8, 112 – 5, 122 – 7, 83 – 9, 110 – 4, 124 – 9, 85 – 5, 76 – 2, 71 – 6, 56 – 7, 82 – 9, 106 – 4, 92 – 6, 82 – 8, 104 – 3, 102 – 3, 110 – 2, 62 – 9, 57 – 8, 83 – 1, 92 – 5, 109 – 2, 83 – 7, 83 – 5, 127 – 6, 67 – 2, 91 – 7, 77 – 7, 92 – 8, 113 – 2, 105 – 6, 106 – 8, 116 – 7, 91 – 9, 118 – 6, 86 – 3, 69 – 3, 93 – 7, 104 – 5, 110 – 9, 71 – 1, 116 – 8, 121 – 3, 69 – 1, 127 – 5, 82 – 1, 104 – 5, 98 – 1, 91 – 9, 112 – 1, 80 – 2, 82 – 4, 124 – 4, 91 – 2, 72 – 7, 76 – 4, 74 – 9, 52 – 4, 49 – 1, 74 – 3, 111 – 6, 126 – 7, 122 – 8, 74 – 9, 69 – 1, 78 – 1, 84 – 2, 75 – 6, 108 – 5, 97 – 8, 94 – 6, 76 – 3, 88 – 7, 122 – 7, 56 – 1, 77 – 5, 108 – 5, 109 – 2, 61 – 7, 89 – 4, 108 – 1, 90 – 8, 122 – 4, 70 – 3, 111 – 5, 67 – 2, 98 – 1, 71 – 6, 70 – 5, 97 – 8, 108 – 9, 82 – 5, 126 – 7, 72 – 7, 84 – 4, 79 – 3, 110 – 6, 92 – 6, 61 – 4, 69 – 2, 70 – 2, 125 – 6, 77 – 6, 68 – 1, 126 – 5, 77 – 4, 107 – 9, 74 – 4, 109 – 4, 79 – 9, 89 – 7, 109 – 7, 74 – 5, 57 – 5, 127 – 6, 92 – 3, 114 – 7, 106 – 2, 54 – 4, 94 – 9, 117 – 9, 112 – 5, 110 – 1, 77 – 5, 54 – 3, 91 – 5, 76 – 5, 84 – 8, 82 – 1, 107 – 8, 78 – 2, 78 – 5, 126 – 6, 59 – 3, 104 – 5, 77 – 4, 83 – 2, 50 – 1, 57 – 2, 81 – 9, 69 – 2, 127 – 8, 78 – 4, 72 – 4, 73 – 6, 65 – 9, 109 – 5, 75 – 7, 92 – 9, 56 – 4, 80 – 2, 78 – 1, 76 – 7, 58 – 5, 56 – 8, 95 – 9, 88 – 2, 95 – 9, 51 – 1, 91 – 5, 90 – 8, 116 – 5, 104 – 1, 75 – 5, 76 – 9, 93 – 8, 69 – 2, 85 – 9, 73 – 7, 125 – 6, 80 – 2, 101 – 2, 93 – 5, 105 – 1, 96 – 6, 99 – 1, 50 – 1, 110 – 2, 58 – 9, 93 – 9, 116 – 7, 112 – 4, 79 – 6, 92 – 9, 69 – 2, 114 – 3, 83 – 4, 93 – 6, 87 – 4, 123 – 8, 94 – 7, 80 – 2, 111 – 7, 123 – 8, 114 – 7, 76 – 8, 87 – 6, 91 – 2, 107 – 2, 96 – 8, 70 – 5, 117 – 2, 120 – 7, 73 – 2, 73 – 5, 76 – 7, 94 – 6, 80 – 9, 105 – 1, 123 – 4, 83 – 9, 79 – 6, 110 – 6, 106 – 6, 98 – 8, 105 – 6, 114 – 7, 84 – 2, 56 – 7, 85 – 2, 84 – 1, 67 – 2, 79 – 8, 73 – 1, 73 – 5, 78 – 1, 74 – 9, 78 – 7, 68 – 1, 128 – 9, 82 – 4, 86 – 6, 69 – 3, 106 – 3, 124 – 9, 87 – 3, 50 – 2, 77 – 7, 56 – 6, 75 – 8, 90 – 2, 84 – 6, 121 – 3, 93 – 6, 91 – 3, 87 – 1, 80 – 1, 103 – 6, 93 – 8, 107 – 4, 80 – 4, 80 – 1, 105 – 1, 102 – 3, 93 – 4, 86 – 6, 93 – 9, 74 – 9, 57 – 2, 78 – 7, 109 – 4, 127 – 8, 98 – 1, 75 – 3, 115 – 9, 101 – 2, 110 – 9, 94 – 9, 87 – 3, 52 – 4, 106 – 7, 82 – 4, 71 – 6, 117 – 6, 125 – 6, 80 – 1, 121 – 1, 121 – 2, 59 – 8, 72 – 6, 105 – 1, 124 – 5, 86 – 9, 77 – 8, 91 – 7, 73 – 8, 80 – 2, 81 – 8, 109 – 4, 75 – 6, 79 – 8, 81 – 8, 112 – 8, 105 – 6, 82 – 6, 81 – 2, 89 – 7, 109 – 6, 61 – 8, 89 – 7, 59 – 8, 82 – 8, 107 – 2, 88 – 5, 76 – 4, 99 – 9, 92 – 9, 92 – 5, 92 – 5, 66 – 9, 96 – 6, 76 – 2, 111 – 7, 112 – 1, 116 – 5, 77 – 6, 111 – 7, 124 – 4, 52 – 9, 94 – 7, 55 – 7, 83 – 9, 73 – 3, 93 – 6, 89 – 1, 92 – 6, 87 – 8, 99 – 2, 90 – 8, 95 – 9, 113 – 8, 107 – 7, 114 – 6, 80 – 7, 70 – 1, 95 – 6, 58 – 9, 110 – 2, 115 – 8, 96 – 8, 114 – 5, 70 – 4, 88 – 4, 92 – 3, 116 – 8, 128 – 9, 83 – 3, 92 – 7, 96 – 9, 97 – 7, 87 – 6, 106 – 8, 111 – 2, 86 – 4, 70 – 2, 41 – 2, 61 – 2, 11 – 1, 108 – 6, 119 – 2, 117 – 7, 103 – 4, 117 – 1, 112 – 7, 113 – 2, 116 – 6, 33 – 1, 128 – 8, 114 – 3, 115 – 1, 102 – 7, 103 – 2, 113 – 3, 101 – 2,